First of all, descriptive characteristics of your own research users from the sex have been displayed because percentages and their respective 95% count on interval (CI)

Sociodemographic properties integrated racial mind-category (light or low-light e.g. black colored, brownish, purple, or local), host to house (metropolitan otherwise rural), education (0–cuatro, 5–8, 9–11, otherwise ? a dozen age), and you can month-to-month family income for each capita during the tertiles (lower, middle, or large). The fresh urban–outlying classification is based on the actions used by the fresh Brazilian Institute of Geography and you can Analytics (from inside the Portuguese, IBGE) in the 2010 population census of administrative constraints set-out by the regional laws. Inside for each municipality’s boundaries, these types of regional legislation present a fictional line called “metropolitan fringe”. The census tracts located within the “urban edge” was termed metropolitan, while the rest of the areas try appointed rural. The other pointers is received due to a face-to-face interviews in the participant’s family.

Anthropometric parameters

Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (

Analytical research

Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI Variables with p < 0.20>


Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).

The features of one’s analysis members because of the sex is seen within the Table step one. In both sexes, very users was basically low-white, lived-in the brand new town, had 0–4 many years of schooling, and you can demonstrated improved sides circumference. Concerning Body mass index, heavy is actually the most prevalent group for males (42.9%), while obese and you will being obese had almost comparable wavelengths for ladies (36.9% and you may thirty five.4%, respectively). Out-of chronic problems, 49.1% from participants advertised which have a health prognosis from arterial blood circulation pressure, 17.4% of all forms of diabetes mellitus, 11.5% of weakening of bones, 7.4% off center illness (angina, myocardial infarction, and cardio incapacity), and you will 5.7% out-of respiratory sickness (symptoms of asthma and you may chronic obstructive pulmonary condition).

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